Base load – The base load on a grid is the minimum level of demand on an electrical grid over a span of time, for example, one week. Base load power sources are power stations which can economically generate the electrical power needed to satisfy this minimum demand. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_load
Energy storage – the capture of energy at one time for use at a later time. Solar batteries are great examples of energy storage.
Demand response, demand-side management (DSM), or demand-side response (DSR) – provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. https://energy.gov/oe/services/technology-development/smart-grid/demand-response
Distributed Generation (DG) – is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. DG technologies often consist of modular (and sometimes renewable-energy) generators, and they offer a number of potential benefits. www.dg.history.vt.edu/ch1/introduction.html
Distributed generation – refers to power generation on-site, rather than centrally. In many instances, this can reduce the cost, complexity, interdependencies, and inefficiencies that often accompany transmission and distribution. Examples of DG include wind turbines, geothermal energy production, solar systems (photovoltaic and combustion), and some hydro-thermal plants.
Electromagnetic Field (EMF) – The term electromagnetic field refers to the electric and/or magnetic fields created wherever electric power is being used. Examples of everyday sources of electric and magnetic fields in the home are appliances, televisions, computers, and standard electrical wiring. EMFs emitted by outdoor transmission lines are typically higher than those emitted by home sources or appliances because their voltage is higher.
Load management – is the same as demand-side management.
Microgrid – “is a small-scale power grid that can operate independently or in conjunction with the area’s main electrical grid. Any small-scale localized station with its own power resources, generation and loads and definable boundaries qualifies as a microgrid.” www.whatis.techtarget.com/definition/microgrid
Non-Transmission Alternatives – NTAs are programs and technologies that complement and improve operation of existing transmission systems that individually or in combination defer or eliminate the need for upgrades to the transmission system https://energy.gov/oe/downloads/updating-electric-grid-introduction-non-transmission-alternatives-policy Examples of Non-transmission alternatives include improved energy efficiency, load management, and distributed generation technologies.
Transmission Lines – Facilities comprised of conductors (wires), poles, insulators, and interconnection and substation components such as transformers and switches used in the transport of electrical power over longer distances; classified in two scales. Low Voltage transmission lines carry voltages ranging from 69,000 volts to 161,000 volts (69 kV-161 kV); High Voltage Transmission lines carry voltages ranging from 230 kV to 765 kV (230 kV-765 kV).
The largest facilities used in Wisconsin to date are 345 kV lines. “Expansion” transmission lines are new, high capacity additions to the grid that are not designed to provide an adequate supply of power- a function being met by existing facilities. Utility interests argue that “expansion” lines can enable lower energy costs and increase access to remote renewable energy, but neither can be guaranteed under current grid operation policies (more on this below).
Eight, high capacity, 345 kV expansion transmission facilities have been added to the Wisconsin grid since 2006. Over this period, Wisconsin electricity costs have increased at record pace and carbon emissions remain largely unchanged.
Transmission Congestion/Congestion Costs – Prior to 1998, nearly all electricity sold in the United States was produced by one’s own utility and transported on lines owned by one’s utility. In 1998, FERC Order 888 enforced a “transmission open access” policy enabling all transmission lines to be used by all utilities in exchange for tariff charges. The justification for this change was founded on differences in costs of producing electricity at that time. It was reasoned that savings would be passed to electricity customers if their utilities were allowed to purchase lower cost power outside of their service territories. It wasn’t too long before demand for some transmission lines approached their carrying limits at certain times. This new phenomenon is called, “congestion.”
By the time U.S. electricity use reached its historical peak in 2007-2008, many new transmission lines had been added to the grid greatly reducing the occurrence and amounts of congestion. Further, as lower cost energy was accessed, differences in the cost of electricity leveled out. In 2005, American Transmission Company, who became Wisconsin’s largest transmission owner/operator, commented that state electricity costs due to congestion averaged about 20% higher than in adjacent states. By 2007, this had dropped to a price difference of about 5%. A recent ATC report indicates interstate price difference due to congestion at very low levels, about 1%.